Welcome to the Procrastinus website!  As part of a larger scientific effort, we are starting to connect procrastination to other aspects about yourself. So after seeing how you compare regarding putting stuff off, take a moment to look at the other assessments at our Survey Center, each with personalized feedback. 


101 thoughts on “Home

  1. Hi Dr. Steel,
    can you please give me the validity and the reliability of the pure procrastination scale? thank you so much.


  2. Some time ago I read an article.
    Was a Wall Street Journal article was the following:
    [People may assume anxiety is what prevents them from getting started, yet data from many studies show that for people low in impulsiveness, anxiety is the cue to get going. Highly impulsive people, on the other hand, shut down when they feel anxiety. Impulsive people are believed to have a harder time dealing with strong emotion and want to do something else to get rid of the bad feeling, Dr. Steel says.]
    Pretty interesting stuff, and looking for paper led to the desire to study.
    It was published articles containing the relevant details?
    Please tell me the title, if it present

    1. Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36-46.

      Taking Beswick, Rothblum, and Mann’s seminal paper on academic procrastination as a starting point, we provide an updated review of academic procrastination and consolidate this knowledge with a procrastination typology. The goal of our study was to show that while the degree of procrastination is largely contingent on the trait of conscientiousness, the other four major personality traits determine how procrastination manifests. According to implications of need theory, we operationalised these four traits by the reasons students gave and the activities students pursued while procrastinating.

      Participants were 167 students of an undergraduate introductory psychology course. It was designed as a self-directed computerised course enabled considerable amounts of procrastination. Students filled out a Big Five Inventory and wrote a short essay detailing: (a) what reason they saw as causing them to procrastinate, and (b) what activities they pursued while procrastinating. The reasons and activities were coded according to their fit to the personality traits.

      Conscientiousness and its facets were the strongest correlates with procrastination. Moreover, in regression analyses, the other personality traits did not incrementally predict procrastination. However, the reasons ascribed to procrastination and the off-task activities pursued reflected the other personality traits.

      While conscientiousness is the core for all procrastination types, the other personality traits determine its phenomenology. Thus, the prominent understanding of a neurotic procrastinator might be misleading for research and practice. In fact, counsellors need to first address the conscientiousness core of procrastination and then match the subsequent interventions to the specific procrastination type.

  3. Hi Dr Steel,

    I love your website and so pleased that you’re a fellow Calgarian!

    I’m quite aware of the devastating consequences that procrastination can have on a student. Perfectionism can also have such debilitating effects; yet, I was surprised to learn that you don’t give it much credit concerning poor self-regulation. I do agree with your theory that we humans prefer to pursue goals or tasks that are more pleasurable and attainable. It certainly resonates with my own avoidance behaviour.

    I am in the grad program in Counselling Psychology and have decided to tackle this pernicious affliction by discussing your TMT theory in my first paper. My question is how to turn your theory into a testable hypothesis – one that I could apply to myself to gauge its efficacy, which would form the foundation of my paper.

    When I reflect on my own ‘task evasion’; I realise it’s not from a lack of motivation that I delay; perhaps; it just comes down to applying simple thought management techniques to resurrect that “vaulting ambition” so characteristic of Macbeth, to attain my goal, to get what I want – not with the intent to harm someone – but to prevent harm from coming to myself.

    Currently, I’m tackling (see I’m even using affirmative language) my pernicious procrastinating habits, my failure to self-regulate, with a variety of diagnostic tools (an app, my phone alarm, sticky notes, thought management techniques, your website pasted into my Favourites Bar.. …) to create stepped goals so that my long term goal of task completion doesn’t get derailed.

    I’m wondering if there is a more recent tool that you could recommend I try. I think it would be cool to create some kind of pop up reminder which would display across my computer screen when I’m using it to help me to return to productive behaviour.

    What do you think?

    Any suggestions?

    Thank you


    1. Ange, you have described my behavior perfectly and it is causing serious problems with the dissertation process. I have not received approval and it’s been 14 months. I use my phone calendar with an alarm, however that has not worked. I don’t know if there are therapists that specializes in procrastinating behaviors. I am trying to find a CBT expert to see if a few sessions will help me. Thanks for helping me to understand that I am not alone.

  4. Dr. Steel, I a using TMT as the theoretical foundation for my dissertation on academic procrastination of online graduate and doctoral students.. Is there an instrument or tool I can use for this qualitative study?

  5. Hello doctor
    I am a 9th class student. I am really facing problem in focusing on my studies. I feel studies as boring and love to follow with my hobby. Day dreaming that’s what my problem is basically and I have a very unorganized schedule. Plz if you can give me a solution

    1. Well, I did write a book. The softcover has everything in bullet notes at the back. Try some things and let me know how it goes. PS. It gets better.

  6. I’m having a difficult time completing the goals app. I want to use it to help me complete course work on time. I am in school. However, my counselor says I am burnt out, in addition to having ADHD. Needless to say I am lacking in motivation. What goals would you recommend I pursue in order to get over burnout.

    1. Number one. Figure out how to get a good night’s sleep. Then diet. Then exercise. Works 99% of the time for energy. And also go see an allergist. You would be surprised how often there is an environmental explanation.

  7. Hi Dr. Steel, i’m from Chile and i with my study partner are making an investigation of Procrastination here in our Design School, of Universidad de La Serena.
    We found you during the previous investigation (methodological framework) and we admire you work.
    We had a cuestion for you, There is a scale for measuring the motivation? according to your theory, of course, because we need to know if our mates procrastinate on a subject in particular, according to design projects.
    We would be very grateful if you help us.
    PD: Excuse me for my english.
    Ricardo and Leonardo.
    La Serena, Chile.

  8. Dr. Steel, I am reading your work for my dissertation on the antecedents and consequences of academic procrastination of online graduate and doctoral students (qualitative study). However, I procrastinate a lot with my academic assignments but is the total opposite in my personal and professional life. Due to my procrastination I have not receive approval for my prospectus, because I wait until the day before to complete my assignments. This behavior affects the quality of my work, is costing me financially for dissertation continuation classes and additional stress. I understand the consequences of my behavior, but I am unable to control my behavior. I took the survey and I am an average procrastinator.

    I would like to use your TMT model as my theoretical foundation for my study as opposed to Deci and Ryan’s Self Determination theory. However, I am confused on how to tie it in to support my topic. I am reading it for the third time to get a clear understanding.

    I read three of your articles and will be getting you book.

    Thanks for your contribution.

  9. Hello Proffesor steel, I am a researher in Mental Health depart and preparing for a master thesis about the possible psychological and social variables related to academic procrasination. What variables do you suggest?

    1. Have to say it is all in my book and publications. Didn’t leave anything out. More could be done with treatments right now in my opinion.

  10. Hello Piers, I came across The Procrastination Equation at my local library 3 weeks ago (it sort found me! ) It was with profound relief and gratitude that I read the first paragraph and knew that you really had been in my shoes and properly understood what was going through my head. It was just the reassurance I needed. I can’t say I felt a that ‘click in my head’ while reading it, but once I’d finished the book I discovered I was procrastinating less and getting on with things, let’s say, impulsively! I’m sure that’s not the end of it, but it’s the beginning of the end. And so I wanted to say a huge thank you. Thank you!

    1. Thanks Michelle! And you are right, I was a massive procrastinator. What can I say? Science works? Glad you took it to heart.

  11. I am a freshman in college. My grandparents are fully paying for my education which puts a lot of pressure on me. I totaled the 2008 Honda CRV they handed me. I failied my math class and had to drop it so that it wouldn’t mess up my GPA and I can’t even bring myself to tell them I failed it. I’m under so much pressure that I just feel like I’ve failed so far and I’m useless, that there’s no hope and I don’t even know if I’m going to use my college education. I feel terrible, unappreciative, ungrateful and I never even get to see my grandparents because they are a thousand miles away. I can’t stay focused on even going to classes. I hate that so much about myself, it is so harmful to me, my grandparents, future me, my parents, my life-partner and, most importantly, my future children, which I am so much more concious of. I wish I could just conserve all of this pressure into motivation but I just can’t. It simply escapes my mind.

    1. This sounds very heavy duty. Fortunately, you are in college. They have counseling services. Use them. You may very well find you have a treatable condition. ADHD creates a lot of procrastination like symptoms and you can get targeted treatment.

  12. Hi Doctor Steel, I was thinking of writing a proposal for a possible anti-procrastination application for a homework assignment.

    One flaw in this would be that many are already glued to their phones as it is, so would this application work or just backfire?

    I was reading up about the Saent application and have found it quite useful. But
    I’m a little curious about the competitive edge that the leveling system adds. Would it be something you advocate to help tackle procrastination?

    Lastly, do you think introducing a structured working process in the application would improve productivity in the long-term? (Something like the Pomodoro technique combined with work breakdown templates)

    This would really help me sort out some of the parts of my assignment! Thank you!

    1. I don’t think it is one size fits all. We are adding aspects of gameification to help people use it effectively, but these are features people can turn off or on. Good for some, but if you don’t want it, it goes away.

      How about classifying and rating inspirational videos? Simple idea but needed. Then you could have an algorithm finding the right inspiration for the right person. That takes it up a notch.

      1. An algorithm..I think that may work! Thank you doctor steel
        I was also thinking of incorporating the Pomodoro technique and work breakdown structures along with the concept of ‘Unscheduling’ into this phone application.

        What do you think about this combination?

  13. Hi doctor steel, I am currently struggling with a lack of self control and procrastination. I just can’t seem to get to work!

    I often find myself being very disorganized. Do you think I should adopt a more organized method of breaking down tasks explicitly?

    I have also begun to view work as dreary and uninteresting. How do I go about reigniting my enjoyment of my work again? Is it a good idea to include leisure activities between work periods and my work regime?

    I have also realized that time often slips away from me and I don’t have enough time for rest and work. How should I tackle this? Would splitting work and play into clearer and more succinct distinct parts be a good idea?

    1. Sounds like you already know exactly what you should be do. All those questions you posed could be answer in one word “yes.” Until you start engaging in some solutions though, which you already identify plenty, there isn’t much to say. Choose one. Try it out. See what works and if you can improve implementation. Then try another.

  14. Dear Dr. Steel,
    congratulations on your website, it’s very good!! I’m from Brazil and am trying to find some articles that could link Brazilians and procrastination and also its relation to the poor performance of Brazil in Education… Do you happen to have anything to indicate to me? I can’t find anything like it on the net…
    Thank you very much!!

  15. Dear Dr Steele, I would like to take this opportunity to deeply thank you for your efforts, and kindness. Your work and suggestions on combating procrastination has given me insight, strength and hope for the future. Thank you!!! Question: I have neglected my personal responsibilities for many, many years now. There are so many options and varying values to my immediate essential needs that I struggle to choose an option to pursue. What is the best way for me to prioritise my overbearing needs?

  16. Dear Dr. Steel,

    Recently I am researching about procrastination at work in Peru. Your book has quite helped me in my last study. I would like to provide me more information about procrastination in work environments. Beforehand I am very grateful for your reply.

    Greetings .

    1. Sure. Just email me at work and I’ll send you a few articles. My academic website and contact information is easily available through google.

  17. Hi Dr Piers
    I just started to read your book advised by an excellent psyquiatre in Argentina. I’m just wondering the following: if I have been able to change the way I leave the consequences of the procrastination in a way that I assume them now without suffering even thus they can have a major impact in my life, am I still a procrastinator?
    Or in other words if I have been able to apply the cognitif change to better accept and support who I am, then making me much happy than before even thus I have not completelly applied the behavior modification shall I still considered me as procrastinator?
    Of course this is may be partial and if for example some day I loose my job and I did not do before what I was willing to do in order to prevent that situation, probably this day I will blame myself…

    1. This is a tricky one. Procrastination is by your standards, not others. If you truly feel you are better off for your lifestyle, even if it has considerable delay, then you are not procrastinating. In fact, I don’t recommend people to completely try to get rid of all their procrastination and become robotically perfect. Some vices, as long as they are kept minor, give us flavor.

  18. So excited to have found this site. Going to take a look around. I just started grad school and I haven’t been in school for almost 10 years. I didn’t realize I was such a procrastinator! I mean, I knew, but it hasn’t been so important to NOT procrastinate as it is now that I’m in school again. And it’s online so that’s added pressure!! From reading these comments, I’ll be really glad I found this site. Thanks!

  19. Hey! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be okay.
    I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward
    to new posts.

  20. Dear Dr. Steel
    I just took two of the surveys: Procrastination and Sensitivity to Time ones. I have foud that I am the “Valerie” type, and ironically not too sensitive to time… just 24,44/100. Frankly, I think I live in a world of sh**, and that is very likely because I am a heavy procrastinator. I hope it is not too late to do major changes.
    I just got your book a few days ago (less than a week) and I have reached page 119/383 by now. It is very good that my reading training was so heavy. I tell you what: I used to think at myself as a hopeless Technical Draftsman because I never did it before, but after a long hard (Harsh!) training I am the one my fellow students ask when they don´t get a clue about drafting. Drafting training was made mostly by myself: teachers really didn´t care about that. Now I would like to do same thing about procrastination and hope. I just hope it is not too late for me.
    Thank you about the book. I hope to keep on track.

  21. The information is very useful although I hate when people make simple things sound so academic, but I will use your work to destroy procrastination in my life. The only problem is that it was so good that it helped me procrastinate what I HAVE to get done

    1. Heh, I’m an academic. You will have to forgive for that. At this point, it’s who I am, thought I do try to tone it down. Best I can do.

  22. Hola…..! quisiera saber cuales son las dimensiones académicas de la procrastinación. estoy haciendo una tesis sobre el tema me gustaría que me ayude…

    1. Estimado Eucebio: puedo decir por la literatura revisada y alguna investigacion hecha que no hay evidencia concluyente para afirmar que las dimensiones de la procrastinacion academica estan claras a la fecha. Pero si puedo aportar que las dimensiones de la procrastinacion en general y que aplican para la academica o para cualquier otro subtipo son: motivacional, cognitiva, de aprendizaje, afectiva, emocional y biologica. Por su puesto segun los autores algunas son incluidas en otras pero mis aportes justo van en que esas son las dimensiones basicas de cualquier tipo de procrastinacion bajo el argumento de que son las que corresponden o reflejan los procesos basicos subyacentes implicados en cualquier subtipo. Aqui dos articulos que sportan lo que digo y que puedes usar, espero sean de utilidad, saludo.



      1. Muchas gracias por este aporte David. Espero puedas leer este mensaje y proveer un enlace al trabajo que tú mismo realizaste para poder citarte. Saludos.

        Thanks Professor Steel for keeping on track. I’m doing my thesis based on your publications and some others as well.

  23. Procrastination and Science Their dissertation can be tips webpages prolonged.
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    1. Its about impulsiveness primarily, then value (how people frame an activity to see as fun or boring) and then finally self-confidence. You can argue for atypical procrastinators if you like, such as the anxiety prone, but I think that is just value related.

      1. Thanks for your kind reply Master Steel: In this point I am wondering about some basic things: which would be the weighting of the different levels of factors? also motivational related to impulsivity and cognitive related to expectations and assessments of achievement?; what about the role of learning process and in particular mechanisms of classical or operant conditioning in the begining or mantenance of this behavior?; and three, that paper you give to the language literalness and verbal instruccions as factors of these behaviour?, big greeting from Argentina of your follower

      2. Thank you very much Master Steel! I’ll check it and then maybe I will write to you again .. Best regards …

      3. Yes. A few months ago, a friend stayed in my apartment (cat-sitting) while I was away from the City. I only clean my apartment (get rid of piles of papers and the rest of the mess) when expecting company. Cleaning and organizing makes me very anxious. A week later, when I returned to my apartment, I noticed areas that looked even cleaner and neater and more attractive than after my major clean-up. How was that possible? My friend said that she likes to “putter.” Ever since that visit, I have been puttering and liking the new look. Puttering is much more fun than cleaning or organizing.

      4. Ahh, “Demand Resistance” rears its ugly head. Amazing how we can make things unpleasant for ourselves by simply saying we have to do them. Worst thing in the world for people with a high need of autonomy. So “putter” instead!

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